Biomaterials are playing a vital role in our day-to-day life.
Sodium Hyaluronate, fermented from Streptococcus zooepidemicus, is a linear copolymer composed of (ß-1,4)-linked D-glucuronate and (ß-1,3)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Sodium Hyaluronate is an abundant glycosaminoglycan found in the extracellular matrix of skin, joints, eyes and most organs and tissues of all higher animals. It is the only non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan and forms highly viscous aqueous solutions.
It plays key role in cushioning and lubricating the body and is abundant in the eyes, joints and heart valves. A powerful antioxidant, hyaluronic acid is perhaps well known to bond water in tissues.
The viscosity is a direct result of the polymer expanded random coil structure a consequence of strong hydrogen bounding. The coiled structure of hyaluronate can trap approximately 1000 times its weight in water.
When chemically modified, HA can be transformed into many physical forms such as viscoelastic solutions, soft or stiff hydrogels, electrospun fibers, non-woven meshes, macroporous and fibrillar sponges, flexible sheets and nanoparticulate fluids, for use in a range of preclinical and clinical settings.
Hyaluronic acid has a wide range of applications with its excellent physicochemical properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, nanotoxicity, and nonimmunogenicity and serves as an excellent tool in biomedical applications such as osteoarthritis surgery, ocular surgery, plastic surgery, tissue engineering and drug delivery.
 Adv Mater. 2011 Mar 25;23(12):H41-56. doi: 10.1002/adma.201003963. Epub 2011 Mar 10. Hyaluronic acid hydrogels for biomedical applications. Burdick JA1, Prestwich GD.
 Acta Biomater. 2014 Apr;10(4):1571-80. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2013.07.025. Epub 2013 Jul 27. Design of cell-matrix interactions in hyaluronic acid hydrogel scaffolds. Lam J1, Truong NF2, Segura T3.
 Glycoconj J. 2015 May;32(3-4):93-103. doi: 10.1007/s10719-015-9586-6. Epub 2015 May 14. Biology and biotechnology of hyaluronan. Viola M1, Vigetti D, Karousou E, D’Angelo ML, Caon I, Moretto P, De Luca G, Passi A.
 Optometry. 2011 Jan;82(1):38-43. doi: 10.1016/j.optm.2010.08.003. A review of hyaluronan and its ophthalmic applications.Rah MJ1.